Electric cars: lower-income countries fall behind, with uptake linked to GDP per capita

Brussels, 6 July 2021 – Strong national variations in EU sales of electric cars are clearly correlated to a country’s standard of living, according to new research by the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA).

Battery electric and plug-in hybrid cars made up 10.5% of all new cars sold in the EU last year. However, 10 member states still had a market share of lower than 3%.

The analysis demonstrates that consumer uptake of electric cars is directly linked to a country’s GDP per capita, indicating that affordability remains a major issue.

“As is the case with the distribution of charging infrastructure, there is a clear split in the affordability of electric cars between Central-Eastern Europe and Western Europe, as well as a pronounced North-South divide,” stated Eric-Mark Huitema, ACEA Director General.

Countries with a total electric car market share of less than 3% have an average GDP of below €17,000. This is the case for instance in Central and Eastern European countries as well as in Greece. What is more, the five countries with the lowest market uptake of electric cars also have very few charging points – under 1% of the EU total each.

On the other hand, a market share of more than 15% for electric cars is only found in richer countries in Northern Europe with an average GDP of over €46,000.

Almost three-quarters of all EU electric car sales are concentrated in four Western European countries with some of the highest GDPs (Sweden, the Netherlands, Finland and Denmark). The remaining quarter of sales is spread across 23 member states.

As recent figures from the European Environment Agency show, the auto industry’s heavy investments in low-emission vehicles are paying off. With sales of electric cars trebling between 2019 and 2020, average CO2 emissions were down a record 12% last year.

Huitema: “To continue this progress on the road to zero, the European Commission must now urgently ensure that all the right conditions are in place – and that no countries or citizens are left behind. Zero-emissions vehicles must be affordable and convenient for everyone.”

Europe’s auto makers are therefore calling for appropriate incentives to stimulate sales of such vehicles in the long run, and binding infrastructure targets for each EU member state.

ACEA is publishing this data ahead of next week’s proposals for new EU-wide car CO2 targets and a review of the Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Directive – both of which will form part of the European Commission’s ‘Fit for 55’ climate package.

Top 5: countries with LOWEST electric car share + their GDP (2020)

  1. Cyprus: 0.5% – €23,580
  2. Lithuania: 1.1% – €17,460
  3. Estonia: 1.8 % – €20,440
  4. Croatia: 1.9% – €12,130
  5. Poland: 1.9% – €13,600

Top 5: countries with HIGHEST electric car share + their GDP (2020)

  1. Sweden: 32.2% – €45,610
  2. Netherlands: 25.0% – €45,790
  3. Finland: 18.1% – €42,940
  4. Denmark: 16.4% – €53,470
  5. Germany: 13.5% – €40,070
The European Commission must now urgently ensure that all the right conditions are in place – and that no countries or citizens are left behind. Zero-emissions vehicles must be affordable and convenient for everyone.

Notes for editors

  • ‘Electric car’ = electrically-chargeable vehicles (battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) in this context.
  • The information in this press release will be published as part of the 2021 edition of ACEA’s statistical report, ‘Making the transition to zero-emission mobility’, on 12 July.
  • This annual ACEA report monitors the market uptake of alternatively-powered vehicles, as well as the availability of infrastructure and purchase incentives – the two main ‘enabling factors’ for zero-mobility – over a seven-year period (2014-2020).
  • It also makes a number of correlations, analysing the influence of certain factors – such as national income or the number of charging points per 100km of road – on the market uptake of alternatively-powered vehicles.

About ACEA

  • The European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA) represents the 15 major Europe-based car, van, truck and bus makers: BMW Group, DAF Trucks, Daimler Truck, Ferrari, Ford of Europe, Honda Motor Europe, Hyundai Motor Europe, Iveco Group, JLR, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Renault Group, Toyota Motor Europe, Volkswagen Group, and Volvo Group
  • Visit www.acea.auto for more information about ACEA, and follow us on http://www.twitter.com/ACEA_auto or http://www.linkedin.com/company/ACEA/


  • Ben Kennard, Senior Communications Manager, bk@acea.auto, +32 485 88 66 44

About the EU automobile industry

  • 12.9 million Europeans work in the automotive sector
  • 8.3% of all manufacturing jobs in the EU
  • €392.2 billion in tax revenue for European governments
  • €101.9 billion trade surplus for the European Union
  • Over 7% of EU GDP generated by the auto industry
  • €59.1 billion in R&D spending annually, 31% of EU total
Content type Press release
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