The market for ‘electrified’ passenger cars can be split in two main categories.
- Electrically-chargeable vehicles (ECVs) include full battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids, both of which require appropriate recharging infrastructure.
- Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are fully powered by an electric motor, using electricity stored in an on-board battery that is charged by plugging into the electricity grid.
- Plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) have an internal combustion engine (running on petrol or diesel) and a battery-powered electric motor. The combustion engine supports the electric motor when required, and the battery is recharged by connecting to the grid.
- Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are powered by an internal combustion engine (running on petrol or diesel) but also have a battery-powered electric motor that serves to complement the conventional engine. Their electricity is generated internally from regenerative braking and the internal combustion engine, so they do not need recharging infrastructure. The hybridisation level ranges from mild to full.
Sales of electrically-chargeable vehicles (ECVs) grew in recent years, but only in line with the overall growth of car sales. Their market share, however, has remained more or less stable; growing by just 0.9 percentage points between 2014 and 2017.
In 2017, ECVs made of up rougly 1.5% of all passenger cars sold across the European Union. At this pace, the market share of ECVs would be 3.9% by 2025 and 5.4% by 2030.